Saturday, January 12, 2008


B. The Sky
C. The Earth
D. Embroyolgy
E. Medicine
F. Health
G. Pure Sciences
H. Miscellaneous
I. Comparative Studies
3. Muhammad (pbuh)

a-Introduction to Women in Islam

b-Injustice and Distortions
c-In the Name of Liberation
e-Status of Women in Islam
h-Covering the Head and the Body

j-Women in Islam vs Women in Judeo-Christian Tradition

Friday, January 11, 2008



ISLAM is one of the derivatives of a common root, S-L-M, for many related words in Arabic such as AS-SALAM and MUSLIM. The derivatives are formed by applying the root form to different linguistic patterns.

The root SLM itself literally means “peace.” When the first consonant of the root is prefixed with the patternal “i-,” i.e., iSLM and the last with “a-,” i.e. SlaM, altogether the root reads iSLaM now. This is the pattern of full action. Thus, Islam means "putting peace into action" or "practicing peace fully." So, in reality the word iSLaM refers to the application of peace not just peace itself. This is why Islam cannot be without practice.

The word muSLiM is yet another derivative of the same root, SLM, through addition of a different set, i.e., “mu-” before the S, and “i-” after the L. The equivalent of this pattern in English is the suffex -er like in read-er, do-er, or act-or, etc. So, derived from iSLaM, the practicing of peace, the word muSLiM now means one who is practicing iSLaM, practicer of peace, a peaceful person or a peace-maker. When you add the suffix -ah, you generate female form of the doer. Thus, muSLiMah is the female practicer of peace.

When you add the prefix al-, it functions as a definite article. Hence, Al salam is the peace. If "As salamu alaykum" literally is “The peace upon you," then alaykum must mean the rest of the translation which is “Upon you.” Yes, “ala” in Arabic on, upon, and “kum” is you (plural).

The Hebrew words shalom and Solomon are also peace-related words in meaning as Hebrew and Arabic are sister languages.

One God-One Religion

One God-One Religion

God is One. So, is His religion, and its name has been Islam since the first human being and the prophet of God, Adam. Muhammad is one and the last of the prophets of the religion of Islam.

Jesus was a Jew. According to the Bible, Jesus is the direct descendant of David who is the 10th grandson of Pares, the son of Juda who is one of the twelve sons of the Prophet Jacob. Among them are the Prophet Josef, Benjamin, Levi, etc. Those who descended from Juda used to be called the Jews. Prophet Moses is not a descendant of Juda, rather he is coming from another son of Jacob named Levi. Thus, Prophet Moses was not a Jew as he belonged to Levi. It means he was a Levite.

Since Moses didn't belong to Judaic line, the religion that he brought had nothing to do with Judaism. Rather than a religion, Judaism refers to a "Tribal nationality." In short, Moses was not a Jew as he was not a descendant of Juda, the father of the Jews, nor the religion he introduced to people was Judaism as it referred to the geneology of Juda’s descendants. In this sense, Jesus is more Jewish than Moses as Jesus was born and raised as a Jew; however, Jesus being a Jew is nothing more than belonging to Juda in terms of nationality, not religion.

Moses was not a Jew, nor the religion of Moses was Judaism. Jesus who was nationally Jew was sent as a prophet to the Jews as his own words in the Bible proves: "I am sent to the lost sheep of the sons of Israel." Jesus' sole mission was to correct the religion of Moses, which was not Judaism, corrupted by the Jews.

Till his departure, Jesus invited and encouraged people to fulfill the covenant given to Moses. Moses is just an outsider of the family of Juda. Thus, the covenant has nothing to do with Judaism, which specifically signifies national belonging to Juda. Jesus' followers attended sinagogues for exactly three hundreds years after the departure Jesus.

If the religion of Moses is not Judaism, and if Jesus' invitation had been to Moses' religion, then what is Judaism, and what is Christianity?

An Abrahamic Religion? Abraham, the Patriarch, meaning the father of all, who lived long before Moses, was neither a Jew, nor a Christian as he was grand, grand-father of Juda. Qur'an says: "Abraham was neither a Jew, nor a Christian. He was an "Upright M-U-S-L-I-M." If their teachings were not Judaism or Christianity, then what was it? The answer is Islam. Unlike Judaism (after Juda) and Christianity (after Christ), Islam is not named after a person, rather it takes its name directly from the Creator, As Salam, The Peaceful God.

Thus, from Adam to Muhammad, it has always been Islam. The Qur'an relates to us that One God has chosen Islam as a religion for us. Nothing else will be accepted!

As a Muslim, we worship the God of Adam, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Muhammad. They are all our prophets and the Qur'an teaches us not to observe any differences between them.

When Jesus was sent to the sons of Israel as a prophet, they belied him and attempted to kill him. However, the followers of Jesus couldn't have denied Moses, the prophet of the sons of Israel, to take revenge, retaliate in return for their denial and refusal of Jesus. Why? Divine revelation given to Jesus required his followers believe and accept Moses.

The Jewish followers of Jesus, to be called Christians after the year 300 CE, today make an identical mistake made to them by the Jews in the time of Jesus which is not to accept the last and the final prophet of God, Muhammad. Following the divine guidance, the Qur’an, we Muslims today do the right thing: accept Jesus and Moses as the followers of Jesus did, accepted Moses against the Jews' denial of Jesus. The sign of a religion being divine is to accept what is offered by that One God, not by immature and gone-astray feelings. Muhammad’s mission is also to correct the corrupted divine religions.

“The same religion has He established for you as that which He enjoined on Noah that which We have sent by inspiration to you and that which We enjoined on Abraham, Moses, and Jesus.”

(Qur’an 42:13)

Oh People of Book! Come, let's be all together in the religion of God which was introduced through Moses and Jesus and inherited to their only and final successor, Muhammad. Islam simply means submission.

We are Muslims, too

We are Muslims, too

It is not possible for Abraham to be either a Jew or a Christian as he is the forefather of all. When they were raising the foundations of the House of God, i.e., Ka’ba, Abraham and his son Ismael prayed to be two Muslims to God and to have a Muslim progeny, too (Qur’an 2:128). “Abraham was not a Jew nor a Christian, but he was true in faith and a Muslim. He joined not gods with God (3:67).” What is a Muslim then? Qur’an tells us that Muslims existed among the ancient people and nations and uses the word in the sense ‘one who bowes to the will of God.’

Inviting his people to the true path, Noah said to have been commanded by God to be of the Muslims (10:72). When defeated by the miracle of Moses, the magicians of Pharaoh decided to join Moses’ religion announcing they became Muslims (7:126). When talking to his people, Moses said them (the Jews): “Put your trust in God, if you are Muslims (10:84).” Even Pharaoh, when overwhelmed with the flood, he said he was a Muslim like the children of Israel (10:90). When Jacob was about to die, he asked his twelve sons, the fathers of the tribes: what they would worship after him. They said they were and would remain Muslims to his God, the God of his fathers, Abraham, Ismael and Isaac (2:132-133). Josef prayed God to die as a Muslim (12:101). The Queen of Sheba was a Muslim (27:42). The apostles asked Jesus to bear witness that they were Muslims (3:53; 5:111). When the Qur’an was revealed, some who heard of it among the Jews and Christians claimed to have always been Muslims before, too (28:53). So, Islam has not started with Muhammad, rather completed with him, the final prophet of God.

God governs the whole universe in a perfect order which results from the absolute obedience of the divine rules by the whole universe. This is stated in the Qur’an as whatever in the heavens and on earth have bowed to His Will, meaning, became Muslims (3:83). Qur’an says: Set your face steadily and truly to the religion, Allah’s pattern according to which he has created mankind (30:30).

So, we are living in a universe that submitted to the will of God. We are human being set in such a way to bow to the will of God. It is Him who called those who have submitted themselves to Him since Adam as Muslims (22:78). Then, who is better in speech than one who says I am of those who bow to God, a Muslim? (41:33). So, Muslims today are the followers of the Muslims of old times.

Who is Allah?

Who is Allah?

Our ilah and your ilah is One and to Him we are submissive (literally, Muslims).

(Qur’an 29:46)

Allah is the proper name in Arabic for the English word God. It is a contraction of the two Arabic words al, the definite article “the,” and ilah, god. Thus, linguistically Allah is The God.[1] Arabic, the language of Muhammad, is a Semitic language like Hebrew, the language of Moses, and Aramaic, the language of Jesus. For this very reason, the Arabic word Allah was spelt before as al, uluh, ilahia,[2] el, eloha, elohim by Moses and eloi,[3] alaha by Jesus.[4]

Of all these derivatives, the word el, God, is both prefixed and suffixed to so many Biblical names familiar to us today. El-i-jah (my-God is Jehovah. So, -i is my.), Ishmael (God hears.), Israel (Prince of God.), Bethel (House of God-Genesis 28:19.), Peniel (Face of God-Genesis 32:30.) Gabriel (Strength of God.) and finally Immanuel (God be with us.) are just some examples of it.[5]

The very first edition of The New Scofield Reference Bible explains the word elohim to us: “Elohim (sometimes El or Elah), English for “God,” the first of the three primary names of Deity, is a uni-plural noun formed from El-strength, or the Strong One, and Alah, to swear, to bind oneself by an oath, so implying faithfulness.”[6] Just in the book of Genesis only, elohim is repeated 156 times[7] and 2570 times throughout the whole Old Testament.[8] The suffix –im that means we or us in Hebrew is used to pluralize a name as a sign of respect, honor, majesty, grandeur and magnitude, not of numbers.[9]

In the English translations of the Old Testament, the Hebrew words translated as God are typically El, Elohim and El-Elohim. In contrasting the Arabic spelling of Al-ilah with the Hebrew spelling of El-Elohim, one would be left with Al-ilh and El-Elhm after the vowel sounds introduced in the English transliteration are deleted.[10] Al-ilh is represented by Alif-Lam-Alif-Lam-Ha in Arabic letters as El-Elhm by the same combination in the Hebrew Alphabet with the exception of the plural –m of respect. Thus, the word Allah is merely the Arabic version of these Hebrew words.[11]

In describing the moment of crucifixtion, The New Testament attributes the use of the words el and elo to Jesus (pbuh). “About the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying, "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani" that is, "My God, My God, why have you forsaken me? (Matthew 27:46),” and “At the ninth hour Jesus cried out with a loud voice, "Eloi, Eloi, lama sabachthani?" which is translated, " My God, My God, why have you forsaken me? (Mark 15:34)."[12] Remember the suffix –i both in the words Eli and Eloi means my, then, el and elo do mean god.

As for the Arabic word ilah that is not distinctly different from el and elah, is derived from the Arabic verb aliha-ya’lahu which means seeking refuge, protection, and aid for preservation; to save, rescue, or deliver from evil; or to render one safe and secure[13] to fulfill the needs, thus, to get the needy satisfied and to be worshipped.[14] Hence ilah is the one who performs all the above-mentioned actions, thus, a protector, a provider. When the definite article al is prefixed to this word, i.e., al ilah, with the letter “i” being dropped, the word becomes Allah[15] that specifies all these attributes solely to the Creator Himself, meaning, The Only Provider-Protector worthy of worship! The English word god, on the other hand, literally means any superhuman object exercising power over nature and man, thus, is invoked and worshipped by sacrifice.[16] Then, the word God is not even an approximate substitute for the word Allah as they drastically differ in meaning even though they both supposedly refer to the same being.[17] Then, the God is not corresponding to Allah in the theological sense.

The word Allah that denotes the personal name of God in the language of Arabic is not subject to plurality or gender. So, it is unique and refers to His oneness and unity, thus, necessarily covers all the most beautiful names that can appropriately be attributed to His Supreme Being only.[18] Then, the very essence of His existence is to protect and to provide.

Today, there are still people who recognize the Creator properly; Muslims, with respect to His proper personal name, Allah swt. One utters when enters Islam the word “There is no god but Allah and Muhammad is His slave servant and messenger.” Now it makes more sense, doesn’t it?

And the most beautiful names belong to Allah so call on Him by them.

(Qur’an 7:180)

He is God, the One besides Whom there is no other god; Knower of the worlds insensible and sensible; He is the Most Merciful Provider, the Most Merciful Protector. He is God, the One besides Whom there is no other god; the Sovereign, the Most Holy, the Author of Peace, The Granter of Security, the Preserver of Safety, the Exalted in Might, the Irresistible Compeller, the Justly Proud. Glory be to God above the partners they attribute to Him. He is God, the Creator, the Originator, the Fashioner. To Him belong the most beautiful names. Whatever is in the heavens and on the earth does glorify Him; He is the Exalted in Might, the Most Wise. (Qur’an 59:22-2)

[1] Baagil, H.M. 1984. Christian Muslim Dialogue, pg 6. Islamic Da’wah Committee, Riyad, Saudi Arabia.

[2] Azad, Mawlana Abul Kalam. 1962. The Opening Chapter of the Qur’an pg 103. Islamic Book Trust, Kuala Lumpur, Pakistan.

[3] Abdullah, Misha’al Ibn. 2001. What Did Jesus REALLY Say? 2nd Edition pg 587. IANA Books.

[4] Encyclopedia Britannica. 1980. Under Allah and Elohim.

[5] Buttrick, George Arthur, et al. 1994. The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible, E-J. Vol.2. Abingdon Press.

[6] Deedat, Ahmed. 1990. What is His name? 5th Edition pg 28. IPCI, Durban, RSA.

[7] Ibid., pg 24.

[8] Broderick, Robert C. and Broderick, Virginia. 1990. The Catholic Encyclopedia published by Thomas Nelson.

[9] Deedat, Ahmed. 1993. The Choice: Islam and Christianity, Volume One, 8th Edition pp 6, 170.

[10] Dirks, Jerald F. 2003. Understanding Islam: A Guide for the Judaeo-Christian Reader, 1st ed., pp. 5-6 Amana Publications, USA.

[11] Dirks, Jerald F. 2004. The Abrahamic Faiths: Judaism, Christianity and Islam, Similarities and Contrasts. 1st ed. pp. 33-34. Amana Publications, USA.

[12] From New American Standard Version of the Bible.

[13] Hammad, Ahmad Zaki. 1996. The Opening to the Qur’an, pp 36- 37. Quranic Literacy Institute (QLI), Illinois, USA.

[14] Siddiqui, Abdur Rashid. 2002. Key to al-Fatiha, pp 3-4. The Islamic Foundation, United Kingdom.

[15] Lane, Edward William. 1997. An Arabic-English Lexicon in Eight Parts. pp. 82-83. Librarie du Liban, Beirut-Lebanon.

[16] Stevenson, A., Bailey, C. and Siefring, J. 2002. Shorter Oxford English Dictionary. 5th edition. Oxford University Press.

[17] Daryabadi, Maulana Abdulmajid. 1991. Tafsir-ul-Qur’an. Translation and Commentary of the Holy Qur’an. Vol. I pg. 2. 1st edition. Darul-Ishaat Urdu Bazar Karachi-I, Pakistan.

[18] Rizvi, Sayed S. Akhtar. 1994. God of Islam, p. 46. Tahrike and Tarsile Qur’an, Inc., Elmhurst, New York, USA.

During the life of the Prophet and the Caliphs

During the life of the Prophet and the Caliphs

During the life of the Prophet (saas) (570-632 CE)

  • The Prophet (saas) used to recite the Qur'an before angel Jibreel (Gabriel) once every Ramadan, but he recited it twice (in the same order we have today) in the last Ramadan before his death. Jibreel also taught the Prophet (saas) the seven modes of recitation.

  • Each verse received was recited by the Prophet, and its location relative to other verses and surahs was identified by him.

  • The verses were written by scribes, selected by the Prophet, on any suitable object - the leaves of trees, pieces of wood, parchment or leather, flat stones, and shoulder blades. Scribes included Ali Ibn Abi Talib, Mu'awiyah Ibn Abi Sufyan, Ubey Ibn Ka'ab, Zayed Ibn Thabit.

  • Some of the companions wrote the Qur'an for their own use.

  • Several hundred companions memorized the Qur'an by heart.

During the caliphate of Abu Bakr (632-634 CE)

  • Umar Ibn Al-Khattab urged Abu Bakr to preserve and compile the Qur'an. This was prompted after the battle of Yamamah, where heavy casualties were suffered among the reciters who memorized the Qur'an.

  • Abu Bakr entrusted Zayed Ibn Thabit with the task of collecting the Qur'an. Zayed had been present during the last recitation of the Qur'an by the Prophet to Angel Jibreel (Gabriel).

  • Zayed, with the help of the companions who memorized and wrote verses of the Qur'an, accomplished the task and handed Abu Bakr the first authenticated copy of the Qur'an. The copy was kept in the residence of Hafsah, daughter of Umar and wife of the Prophet.

During the caliphate of Uthman (644-656 CE)

  • Uthman ordered Zayed Ibn Thabit, Abdullah Ibn Al Zubayr, Saeed Ibn Al-Aas, and Abdur-Rahman Ibn Harith Ibn Hisham to make perfect copies of the authenticated copy kept with Hafsa. This was due to the rapid expansion of the Islamic state and concern about differences in recitation.

  • Copies were sent to various places in the Muslim world. The original copy was returned to Hafsa, and a copy was kept in Madinah.

Three stages of dotting and diacritization

  • Dots were put as syntactical marks by Abu Al-Aswad Al Doaly, during the time of Mu'awiya Ibn Abi Sufian (661-680 CE).

  • The letters were marked with different dotting by Nasr Ibn Asem and Hayy ibn Ya'amor, during the time of Abd Al-Malek Ibn Marawan (685-705 CE).

  • A complete system of diacritical marks (damma, fataha, kasra) was invented by Al Khaleel Ibn Ahmad Al Faraheedy (d. 786 CE).

What is the Qur’an?

What is the Qur’an?

THE QUR`AN is the pre-eternal translator of the mighty Book of the Universe, and the post-eternal interpreter of the various tongues reciting the verses of creation, and the commentator of the book of the Worlds of the Seen and the Unseen, and the revealer of the treasuries of the Divine Names hidden in the heavens and on the earth, and the key to the truths concealed beneath the lines of events, and the tongue of the Unseen World in the Manifest World, and the treasury of the post-eternal favor of Divine Mercy and of the pre-eternal addresses of Divine Glory, which come from the World of the Unseen beyond the veil of this Manifest World; it is the sun, foundation, and plan of the immaterial world of Islam, and the sacred map of the worlds of the hereafter, and the expounding word, lucid exposition, decisive proof, and clear interpreter of the Divine Essence, Attributes, Names, and functions; it is the instructor of the world of humanity, and the light and water of Islam - the macroanthropos, and the true wisdom of mankind, and the true guide and leader urging humanity to prosperity and happiness, and it is a both a book of law, and a book of prayer, and a book of wisdom, and a book of worship, and a book of command and summons, and a book of invocation, and a book of thought, and a unique, comprehensive Sacred Book, comprising many books, to which recourse may be had for all the needs of all mankind. And it is a Revealed Scripture like a sacred library offering treatises suitable for all the various ways and different paths of the all the saints and the veracious ones and the wise and the learned, which is appropriate for the illuminations of each way and enlightens it, and is suitable for the course of each path and depicts it.

SECOND PART and complement to the definition:

As is explained and proved in the Twelfth Word, since THE QUR`AN has come from the Sublime Throne, and the Greatest Name, and from the highest degree of each Name, it is God`s Word in regard to the Sustainer of All The Worlds. And it is God`s decree through the title of God of All Beings. And it is an address in the name of the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth. And it is a conversation in respect of Absolute Dominicality. And it is a pre-eternal discourse on account of universal Divine Sovereignty. And it is a notebook of the favors of the Most Merciful One in regard to all- embracing, all-encompassing Divine Mercy. And it is a collection of ad- dresses at the start of which are certain ciphers in respect of the tremendous- ness of Divine Majesty. And through its descent from the comprehensive- ness of the Greatest Name, it is a Sacred Book full of wisdom which looks to and inspects all sides of the Sublime Throne.

It is because of this mystery that with complete fitness the title of The Word of God has been given to the Qur`an, and is always given. After the Qurtan comes the level of the Books and Scriptures of the other prophets. But the other innumerable Divine Words are each in the form of inspiration made manifest through a special regard, a partial title, a particular manifestation, a particular Name, a special Dominicality, a particular sovereignty, a special Mercy. The inspirations of the angels and man and the animals vary greatly with regard to universality and particularity.

THIRD PART: THE QUR`AN is a Revealed Scripture which comprises in summary the Books of al1 the prophets, whose times were al1 different the writings of all the saints, whose paths are all different, and the works of all the purified scholars, whose ways are all different. Its six aspects are all brilliant and refined of the darkness of doubts and scepticism; its point of support is certain heavenly revelation and the pre-eternal Word; its aim and goal is self-evidently eternal happiness; its inner aspect is clearly pure guidance; its upper aspect is necessarily the lights of belief; its lower aspect is undeniably evidence and proof; its right aspect is evidently the surrender of the heart and conscience; its left aspect is manifestly the subjugation of the reason and intellect; its fruit is indisputably the Mercy of the Most Merciful One and the realm of Paradise; and its rank and desirability are assuredly accepted by the angels and man and the jinn.

Introduction to Muhammad's Life

Introduction to Muhammad's Life

"Verily! this Qur'an guides unto that which is straightest, and gives glad tidings unto the believers who do good works that theirs will be a magnificent reward."

Qur'an 17:9

Note: The main sources of the following information were the books "Al-Seerah al-Nabawiyya" by Ibn Hisham, and "Al-Seerah al-Nabawiyya" by Abu-AlHasan Al-Nadwi. Other sources were used as well.

The Lands Surrounding the Arabian Peninsula

The Lands Surrounding the Arabian Peninsula

In the sixth century AD, at the time of the birth of Muhammad (pbuh), the Arabian Peninsula was surrounded by a number of great empires. These empires were in a state of constant conflict, waging wars and claiming territories. The boarders of nations were constantly being redrawn, and at times whole nations would crumble under the advancing forces of a more vicious and powerful neighbor. However, in an age when the people of all of these nations had become accustomed to countless rulers, conquerors, philosophies, and religions, throughout all of this, Allah Almighty saw fit to protect the Arabian peninsula from these forces and allow it's inhabitants to roam free, with great pride in their freedom, never bowing to man-gods or rulers who claimed to be "incarnations" of mythological gods such as had become the fate of the Persians, the Romans, the Hindus, and many other nations surrounding them. Although steeped in paganism and idol worship, theirs was a simplistic and very basic sort of paganism as compared to the infinitely more complex and multifaceted paganism of the multi-cultured nations surrounding them, their religious philosophies, and their untold rituals.

The situation the Roman empire has been dealt with in some detail in previous chapters, so it will only be dealt with very briefly here (see chapters 1-3).

The Roman empire

The situation the Roman empire was far from enviable. The Byzantine Empire (the eastern part of the later Roman Empire), became a land of crippling taxation and rampant bribery. The citizens had become so frustrated with their miserable condition that civil unrest and rioting became commonplace. In the year 532C.E., during the rule of Justin I, only one single such riot resulted in the death of over thirty thousand citizens in the capital of Costantinople.

During this period, the amassing of material wealth and money by any means possible became a virtual obsession. The religious elite had become severely intolerant of unconformance to their beliefs and this resulted in massive bloodshed and campaigns of persecution. The rulers immersed themselves in all manner of luxury and indulgence, caring little what the cost of their entertainment might happen to be upon the citizens. Recreation and amusement consisted of blood sports of the utmost viciousness. Up to 80,000 people at a time would attend these events in huge coliseums in order to amuse themselves watching battles to the death at times between men and men, or at others between men and lions or other man-eating carnivores.

Egypt supplied both the grain that fed Rome and much of the government's revenue. The empire sucked this lush and fertile farm land dry under crippling taxation, tyrannical rule, and religious persecution in order to maintain the extravagant lifestyles of the elite ruling class. This sad state of affairs was no better in Syria which was ruled with an iron fist resulting in taxation so severs that the citizens found no recourse but to sell their children into slavery in order to pay their taxes.

Map & Live Weather of
Saudi Arabia

The Iranian empire

Zoroastrianism was the official religion of the Sassanian empire during this period as it had been the faith of the Persian kings since it was founded in the seventh century BC by Zoroaster (or Zarathusthra). In ancient Iran, two groups of gods were worshipped, the Ahuras and the Daevas. The message of Zoroaster was that Ahura Mazda, the Wise Lord of light, was the sole creator and lord of the world and that the worship of the Daevas was the worship of darkness and evil. Other ancient mythological gods were later revived throughout this land, the most noteworthy of them being Mithra (associated with the sun), and Anahita (associated with water and fertility) in addition to Ahura Mazda and his evil adversary Ahriman. The sacred literature of Zoroastrianism is found in the Avesta, only a small portion of which remains today.

The followers of this religion were required to worship the sun four times a day in addition to the worship of the moon, fire and water. A complex collection of rituals and practices were associated with these gods. This religion was modified later by such as Mani (Manes), c.216-c.276 who called for monasticism and celibacy, and Mazdak (fifth century AD), who called for a socialistic group ownership of both money and women. People would enter into one another's homes, lay claim to their property and wealth and take liberties with their women. Unemployment and disenchantment prevailed, and the citizens were utilized by their rulers as cheap fodder for their armies. In their desperate search for a meaning for their pitiful existence these citizens experimented with every conceivable philosophy from Eicureanism to monasticism and everything in-between. All of this eventually lead to the development of vast rifts between the different levels of this society.

During this period, bandits would sack the palaces of the rich, pillage and loot them and lay claim to the women. These new land owner's ignorance in matters of farming eventually lead to the ruin of the farm land. So disenchanted did the people become with the tyranny and abuse of their rulers that it later lead to a popular revolt by the farmers.

The rulers of this empire ascended the throne of their fathers through inheritance, ruling with an iron hand, crippling taxation, and the theory that this ruler was a god, the descendant of gods. This ruler would surround himself with all manner of rare and precious possessions including gold, rare animals, precious jewelry, fine clothing, exquisite furniture, imperial palaces, endless slaves, and delicate cuisine. Their life was indeed the stuff that fairytales were made of, and it has been recorded that when this regime finally fell before the Islamic empire, their ruler Yazdegird III (r. 632-51) fled his land with one thousand cooks, one thousand musicians, one thousand trainers for his tigers, one thousand hawk trainers, and other members of his royal staff, all the while considering himself to be in a very miserable and pitiful state of affairs.


In ancient times, this land had been the birthplace of many great advances in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, philosophy, and many other disciplines. However, over the centuries, a steady decline in moral values and religious knowledge eventually lead in the sixth century C.E. to what many historians consider to be it's lowest state of decline.

During this period nakedness became commonplace even in the temples. Women became public property and changed hands through gambling. If a woman's husband were to die her existence would lose all meaning and remarriage was prohibited for her for the rest of her existence. Higher levels of society developed the ritual of "Seti" which required a widow of a nobleman to burn herself to death as a sign of faithfulness to her deceased husband.

The Aryan invaders and Brahmans developed a four-level classification for society called the Caste system, it consisted of:

1) The religious elite, or priests, called the "Brahmins". They were considered superior to all others and sinless.

2) The Ksatriyas, or warriors and rulers;

3) The Vaisyas, or merchants and farmers;

4) The Sudras, or peasants and laborers.

There was also a fifth class called "Panchamas", or Untouchables. They include those whose occupations require them to handle unclean objects. It is speculated that the Untouchables were originally assigned such lowly tasks because of their non-Aryan origins. The law stated that if an untouchable stretched out his hand or his stick against a Brahman then his hand would be chopped off. And if he kicked a Brahman then his leg would be severed. And if an Untouchable claimed to teach a Brahman then he would be made to drink boiling oil. Under their law the punishment for the killing of an untouchable was equal to that of the killing of a frog, a crow, an owl, a cat, or a dog. The Untouchables were also forced to live outside the city.

The Sudras were considered to have been created from the feet of the creator of the heavens and their purpose in life was to serve the higher classes. They were not allowed to own money, sit with a Brahman, touch him with their hand, or read the sacred books.

The original religion of India was Hinduism. However, with time a more general state religion was created incorporating Buddhism and other faiths as well as Hinduism. So deeply engrained into this society did polytheism become that it is recorded that by the sixth century C.E. the inhabitants of this land had adopted over 330 million gods (L.S.S. O'Malley, Popular Hinduism, the Religion of the Masses, Cambridge, 1935, pp. 6-7). During this era, anything grand, or anything wonderful, or anything useful was worshipped as a god.

The Arabian Peninsula

The Arabs during this century has sunk to a very low state. They became obsessed with intoxicants, gambling, and idol worship. Girls became such a disgraceful commodity among them that they would bury their infant girls alive for fear of disgrace.

Women in this society became a commodity that was inherited by her husband's heirs just as they would inherit his money or livestock. Men could marry an unlimited number of women, and would sometimes kill their own children if they feared they would cause them poverty. The men would further designate specific foods that were for their personal consumption and prohibited upon their wives or children.

Slavery and treachery were rampant throughout the land. Tribal feudalism became commonplace, and great battles would be waged over the outcome of a horse race or other trivial matters. Over the centuries, the house that Prophet Abraham and his son Ishmael had built in Makkah (the Kaaba) was taken by these people as home for their idols and their pagan worship. By the time Muhammad (pbuh) came, 360 idols had been fashioned and placed inside and around the Kaaba, and the surrounding tribes had distorted the pilgrimage first instituted by prophet Abraham into a pagan ritual of running naked around these idols while whistling and clapping. The pagans of Arabia continued to believe in God, however, they regarded Him as the "supreme" god and felt it necessary to set up "intermediary" gods (idols) who would "intercede" with God/Allah for them.